Basics of fast reading
For many centuries, people received most of the information they needed through reading. Despite the centuries-long experience of the appearance of printed materials, the need in high speed reading appeared only in modern times.
The main stimulus was the excessively increased amount of information, for the perception and mastering of which fast methods are required. The speed of reading the texts of an average person does not exceed 500-700 printed characters per minute, which causes certain difficulties in mastering the material and requires more time to read it.
Rapid reading methods - what is the secret?
The very mention of the rapid reading technique causes many reasonable questions about what makes it possible to increase the speed? Knowledge and application of a number of simple rules will significantly increase the speed of perception of the read material, and will allow you to explore the basic methods and principles. Most of the techniques are carried out by eliminating problems arising from a number of factors and habits. So, let's consider the main problems that prevent us from reading the necessary material with the necessary speed.
Read without regressions - easy and affordable
The term regression means following the text with your eyes in the opposite direction in order to read the line again. This problem is considered the most common, it is mistakenly assumed that this method helps memorizing. Many readers automatically re-read the text twice, without even concentrating their attention on it. The average re-reading occurs approximately 10-15 times for every 1000 words of text, and it is assumed that the person returns to the beginning of the line, starting to read it again.
In this case, there may be reasonable repetitions, due to the emergence of new thoughts and ideas. Its main task is a detailed understanding of the material, which requires additional reading of the text. The rules of speed reading help to make the application of this method an effective help at the final stage of reading.
Regression encourages the eye to make progressive movements in the opposite direction, while there is no reasonable need for this. If this continues in each read line, the reader will have to reread the text twice, so, the reading speed will be lower by the same indicator. Such regressions are the most important disadvantages that reduce the speed of reading; more often, eye returns are unreasonable.
The cause of the regression is extremely simple - most often – it is just the power of habit, which arose when you read complex texts, or simple inattention, when there is a need for repetition. A simple rejection of regressions will increase the speed of reading up to two times, and the correctness of perception of the text up to three times. Now that the reading speed has increased significantly, you can proceed to the next stage.
Reading without using articulations
This concept includes involuntary use of the tongue and lips, automatic repetition of what has been read “to yourself”. The movement of speech organs has a direct impact on the speed of reading, significantly slowing down the process. The intensity of such movements is determined by the skills, habit and high index of the complexity of a particular text. From early childhood, this skill develops in the wrong direction, which automatically affects the appearance of articulations.
For most people, it is difficult to recognize that they have such a thing as articulation, although we often hear that a person “mutters” something while reading. Thanks to modern research methods, we managed to find out that practically everyone has such a phenomenon as articulation, X-ray imaging showed the activity of pharyngeal elements responsible for the pronunciation of sounds. The possibility of excluding the pronunciation of words, even mentally, is considered the most rational method to learn to read quickly.
If you are sure that you do not pronounce the words, in fact this is not the case, the method of school education was built in such a way that the articulation (pronouncing aloud) was cultivated from the school bench. Retraining is much more difficult than learning anew, but the basic techniques of fast reading will drastically change the situation for the better.
Methods for solving the problem of repetition of the material you read
There are several teaching techniques that can cope with an existing defect, which makes it possible to increase the speed of reading:
- If the pronunciation happens with the movement of facial muscles, a whisper, or other produced sounds, you just need to take some object in the teeth, a pencil would be the best. The degree of compression and unpleasant feelings at the same time will teach you to keep any mechanical movements under control, and you will be able to eliminate the repetition process that interferes with fast reading;
- The repetition of words in thoughts is considered to be a more complex defect, since the brain center of speech is involved here. The applicable method for eradicating this weakness is called the " fight fire with fire." It means that the speech and motor centers of the brain coexist, therefore, reading should be trained under a certain rhythm (not musical), making rhythmic movements during reading. At first glance, it looks difficult, but it is rather efficiently and effectively.
Basics of quick reading using the integral algorithm
The main task pursued by speed reading is not the number of printed characters received, but the efficiency and optimization of the information received, its digestibility and the perception of the text you read. It means, the book should not just be read, but fixed in memory, comprehended and understood. People do not think about the speed of reading the text, as a result they read it slowly in all situations. There is a certain rule, on its basis, the technique of reading and perception of the material, must correspond to the tasks you have. The individual program and its execution allows you to switch at any moment and increase the speed reading indicators.
Vertical eye movement
When reading any material, a limited angle of view is used, the part of the text is fixed with a glance, after which information is analyzed in the brain. The traditional method of reading allows to fix not more than 2-3 words at a time, after which the eye makes new jumps and subsequent fixations. So, the expansion of the field of view will allow you to simultaneously get more information, and reducing the number of stops will make the reading process more efficient. The person who mastered this method, for one fixation, perceives not a few words anymore, but a whole line, a sentence, and even a paragraph as the skill develops.
Such reading will not only increase the speed, but also increase the perception of the material, since the brain does not need to collect a complete sentence from individual phrases and fragments. The meaning of the text will become more understandable, which will contribute to better perception and memorizing.
Another significant drawback can be eye movement along the line, such messages take time and effort, causing rapid fatigue. Vertical reading will allow to avoid such movements, economically spending time and energy in the process of reading the material. The vertical movement of the eye makes it possible to develop fast reading methods and improve the quality of assimilation.
Selection of the dominant or main meaning of the text
The problem of perception of the text material may be related to the difficulty of restoring the connecting constituent objects and the knowledge about them. Reading a simple text, we get a perception based on the already existing baggage of knowledge, we understand the already known meaning and meaning of words, associating them with our own perception. With еру texts that are difficult for perception, carrying a stream of new information, the situation is more complicated; it requires the installation of a new logical chain built in space and time.
The process of comprehending the material you read in such a situation requires concentration of attention, sufficient baggage of knowledge and skills to apply them, as well as proper knowledge of some thinking techniques. The desire to remember the text causes a natural desire to understand what the following techniques are used for. Key supporting points in the text are highlighted, and anticipation is also used.
The principle of identifying supporting points in the semantic chain happens like that. The whole text is divided into parts, each of them has its own meaning, which improves the perception of the material read and facilitates memorizing. Any concept associated with it can be a referent element of the text . In their place any minor details, terms or associations that facilitate memorization can serve.
Any association can be used as a support, compressed information that bears the general semantic load. The meaning of this method comes down to the need to understand the main idea of what is written, to highlight important and significant phrases. Thus, the central concept and the main idea stand out from the text, which ultimately makes it possible to assemble the associated concepts into one general idea, which is the main principle of the general understanding of the text. This technique allows you to get a general understanding of the text without losing its semantic load.
Another important method of increasing the speed of reading is the anticipation of further text based on a semantic guess. You can also define this concept as a psychological prediction of the text. It is based on the methods of determining the logical development of events, due to the result of the analysis of previous events. Anticipation provides an expectation of the process, even at those moments when the prerequisites for this do not exist.
Practicing such a phenomenon is possible only in the case of productive work of thinking process, for which certain skills should be developed. Here the reader focuses on the holistic content of the written text, and not on its specific parts. The basis of the method is the understanding of the general content of the information read, but not its parts separately.
Constant work on improving attention and memory
The need to fully focus on the performance of a particular work allows you to do it more accurately (carefully). The skill of managing your attention while reading is a key element of fast reading and full perception of the material. Slow reading makes it possible to switch attention to foreign objects, which prevents you from fully understanding the information received. So, the faster we read, the better we understand the material. If a person thinks about something in the process of reading, this may cause a whole text passage to be re-read.
Daily rate and fulfillment of obligations
The accepted reading standard is considered to be several informational newspapers, a scientific or technical journal, and about a hundred pages of fiction. The implementation of such a program will allow you to master and improve your reading skills at a fast pace and will enable you to constantly maintain the necessary “form”. The ideal way to perform all the existing techniques is an exercise course to develop such skills.